Charlotte Taylor     Her Life and Times

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Acadian Expulsion

From The Federal Union by John D. Hick

Excerpt from Page 141

"… Perhaps the most chronic area of contention between Great Britain and France … was Nova Scotia, a kind of buffer province along the seacoast between New England and New France where both nations had attempted settlements.  By the Treaty of Utrecht, however, the French conceded 'all Nova Scotia or Acadia' to the British, but retained both Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island.  To guard the Gulf of St. Lawrence and to serve as a trade centre, the French then built a strong fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton, while the British countered by founding Halifax in Nova Scotia and by encouraging immigrants to settle in the colony.  At the beginning of the French and Indian war, French incitement of the Indians against the British led the latter in 1755 to expel about 6,000 French Acadians from their homes, and to distribute them along the seacoast from Massachusetts to South Carolina.  Some of the exiles made new lives for themselves in the British colonies, others found their way back to Acadia, and still others fled to Louisiana.  It was out of this episode in Anglo-French relations that Longfellow wove his fanciful tale, Evangeline."

From The History of the Maritime Provinces by John Harper

Excerpt from Page 2

"… Acadia, the Latin for the Micmac term A-cadie, was applied by the first settlers to the eastern part of New France, on account of its fertility. … Some derive it incorrectly from Laquoddie, a fish on the coasts. Cadie simply means a place."

Excerpt from Pages 71 to 73

"… It became evident to Governor Lawrence at Halifax, that to maintain peace in Nova Scotia the Acadians must be expelled.  When the troops from Boston arrived in the Bay of Fundy, one section … went to Fort Lawrence, under Colonel Monckton; another to Minas under Colonel Winslow.  Major Handfield was in command at Annapolis.  To these three, Governor Lawrence sent his instructions, revealing a plan for the removal of all Acadian families to the neighbouring colonies, and for the desolation of their homes.  Winslow's task was the bitterest.  Those who lived around Cumberland and Annapolis were warned of the misfortune, and fled to the woods. Winslow, in a prepared speech, announced his orders.  They were told that their lands, tenements, and livestock, being forfeited to Crown of England, they were about to be removed to other lands on the vessels which lay at anchor in the channel.  A few who had kept back from the meeting escaped to the forest, to look and bemoan destruction which laid waste 'those pleasant farms, of which naught now but tradition remains'.  House, barns, hay and grain were consumed, and the cattle removed to English settlements.  No wonder both men and women wept, when, from the decks of the ships that bore them to exile, they saw the smoke and ruin of many years' toil.  During the autumn the work of expulsion and demolition went on.  Over 7,000 were removed from the little settlements scattered over the province.  1,000 sent to Boston; 500 to Pennsylvania.  All over New England colonies the same hardships were endured, the same desire for return expressed.  But Governor Lawrence, though he knew that many innocent suffered with the guilty, refused to allow them again a foot-hold in his province.  A large number of them settled on the St. John and along bays and rivers of the Gulf Coast."

Excerpt from Pages 80 and 81

"… The settlements on the Miramichi and Bay Chaleur were enlarged by the arrival of Acadians from Nova Scotia.  The principal settlement on the Miramichi, at this time, was situated at the confluence of the two main branches of the river.  At that point, a village of 200 houses had grown up under fostering care of Pierre Beaubair, who had also built a battery of 16 guns at French Fort Cove, farther down the river.  For a time the place seems to have been prosperous.; but a bad harvest in 1757, reduced the colony to a state of starvation.  This was followed by a pestilence which swept of 800 of inhabitants, among whom was Beaubair himself.  About a year afterwards news came that Louisbourg had been taken by the English.  To destroy all these places, and to disperse or carry away their inhabitants, was a duty laid upon General Wolfe, before he prepared to pass with his three regiments to Quebec.  It was an ignoble path towards a glorious fate.  Suddenly but reluctantly was the task accomplished.  Stores of fish and provisions were taken or destroyed.  The people were driven to the woods, and the torch applied to their dwellings.  As Wolfe, in his report, said, they did a great deal of mischief, spread the terror of the King's arms, but added nothing to their reputation.  After siege of Beausejour, the French retreated to the St. John River, where, under the supervision of Boishebert, they repaired the fort at the mouth of the river, and established themselves on farms as far as St. Ann's (Fredericton). Their presence, so near, was full of danger to Nova Scotia; and what Wolfe did with the settlements on the Bay Chaleur, Colonel Monckton was ordered to do on the Bay of Fundy."

From Acadia Lives by Jeremy Schmidt

"… tintamarre, the din making - music to celebrate the Feast of the Assumption.  The most important day of the year for … Acadians of New Brunswick, it marks the ascent to heaven of Mary, their patron saint. … The Acadians' past is dominated by one of history's epic calamities, their expulsion from their Nova Scotia homes by the British in 1755 during the final struggle between Britain and France for dominion in North America.  The act drove generations of Acadians into cultural hiding.  Two centuries after the expulsion, a French name in New Brunswick, where many Acadians eventually settled, was a sign of poverty, backwardness, diffidence.  It was not unusual for a family to change its name - from LeBlanc to White, for example - in the hope of escaping the burden of history. … What they remember more than anything else is the 1755 expulsion, immortalized in Longfellow's epic poem, Evangeline.  The British, anxious to rid themselves of these disloyal subjects who had refused to sign an oath of allegiance after their settlements on the Bay of Fundy had been ceded by France, ordered the division and dispersal of Acadian families.  Men were shipped off to various American colonies, women and children afterward to separate destinations.  Homes were burned and farms confiscated.  It was not incidental that the British coveted the Acadians' land - fertile tidal flats reclaimed from the sea by generations of farmers, using a unique method of dyke building.  Many of the Acadians followed painful and circuitous routes to Louisiana; others were assimilated in places as far away as the Falkland Islands.  Roughly half of the 8,000 who were ordered deported did not survive the ordeal.  They perished at sea, victims of storms; died in British prisons; or succumbed to cold and starvation in the woods near their former homes.  A few made good their escape in Canada, but none without hardship.  Two members of one group, after two years of wandering, came to rest halfway up a long bay on New Brunswick's east coast that was protected from British warships by shallow waters.  Over the years, word filtered out to other exiles, and Acadians who had found nothing for themselves elsewhere came to settle there. Today, the peninsula has the largest concentration of Acadians … Near the town of Caraquet is Le Village Historique Acadien, a collection of 46 buildings - almost all restored originals - meant to show Acadian life as it was between 1780 and 1880.  Here men in traditional clothing operate horse-drawn ploughs, women bake bread in outdoor ovens, and card, dye and spin wool sheared from sheep."

From New Brunswick's 200th Birthday - Acadians Feel They Have Little To Celebrate by Chris Morris

" … The Acadians are the children of Evangeline, a people whose sorrowful history is rooted in their expulsion and the long struggle to regain a home. … When the British defeated the French colonists and secured what are now the Maritime provinces in 1710, they were put in the uncomfortable position of trying to govern a French majority with an English minority.  Acadians refused to swear allegiance to the Crown.  In 1755, British administrators solved the problem by expelling the Acadians, scattering them through North America and Europe.  Families were separated and hundreds lost their lives in long sea voyages.  The tragedy of the expulsion was poignantly caught by Longfellow who wrote Evangeline.  Some escaped deportation, hiding in remote parts of New Brunswick.  Others who were expelled gradually made their way back to begin rebuilding a life in what they have always regarded as their homeland.   When they returned, they settled in northern and eastern New Brunswick (in isolated areas), far from the English Loyalists who dominated life in the province following their arrival from the United States in 1783."

From Survival of Acadians Site Occupies Ancestral Land by Helmer Bierman

"… Majority of Acadians originated in 'Poitou' - the part of France that lies south of Brittany. … The area of Memramcook - St. Joseph is unique in the history of New Brunswick and in the history of Acadia. It was not far from the waters of Shepody Bay that Reverend Camille Lefebvre established the first Acadian institution of higher learning - the College St. Joseph. This is the only area near the Bay of Fundy where the Acadians still occupy lands cultivated by their ancestor before expulsion of 1755, when the centuries-long struggle between England and France was four years from the last major battle between the adversaries on the North American continent. About 6,000 Acadians were deported to British colonies of New England … Later other families were shipped to various parts of the world, including the southern part of Louisiana. In 1764, the British government, which had earlier condoned murder and pillage as a means of eliminating French speaking people in North America, decided to allow some of the Acadians to return to the Atlantic area. Those returning should not congregate in large settlements, and since their lands had been given away to other immigrants, he returnees went into the wilderness (many to what is now the Acadian peninsula). … The Acadians who were basically farmers exploited the opportunity to break into the rich soil of the tidal marshlands along the Bay of Fundy. They raised some extraordinary earthen dykes along the shore to keep out high tides and drained land for agriculture."

From Les Familles de Caraquet by Fidele Theriault

Excerpt from Pages 7 and 8

"… The colonization of Caraquet in the 18th century was affected by small populations regrouping beside parents and friends near fresh water. This was the case of the colony of streams Isabelle, Petit-marais, and Petite-riviere. These three places are the three villages of Caraquet, where the French Bazagier said that there were there in 1760, 36 families containing 150 people. … Alexis Landry and his family established at Petite-riviere (Sainte-Anne-du-Bocage). With his six boys, his guards Pierre Thibodeau and Joseph Dugas, he formed the first ? of Acadian refugees in Caraquet."

Excerpt from Page 38

"… Blanchard This family … established themselves at Port Royal, and one of their young sons, Rene, emigrated to Grand Pre. His son, Olivier, married around 1751 Catherine Admirault of the Petitcodiac. There was born the pioneer of Caraquet, Olivier Blanchard … The village of Blanchard was destroyed in the fall of 1758 by Major Scott, and Olivier went for refuge to the estuary of the Restigouche where some French provision ships arrived in 1759. He escaped again the English troops that destroyed the village of Petit-Rochelle in 1760, and took refuge at Nepisiquit with his family, where he was counted in the census of Pierre Calvet in the course of the summer of 1761. He could not however escape from the surprise raid of Captain MacKenzie in the fall of the same year … Olivier Blanchard and his family and more than 300 Acadiens were taken prisoner to Fort Cumberland. Here tradition says that he was deported back to France and came back to the Bay of Chaleurs in one of the ships of the (cie) Robin … Charles Robin began his commerce in Canada around 1767, and kept for his first years of operation a journal which is most interesting for the history of this period."

Excerpt from Page 81

"… Chiasson Joseph, ancestor of Chiasson family of Caraquet. He was born at Beaubassin around 1733. He wed around 1755 AnneHache and went with his in-laws for refuge to P.E.I. In 1760 he is with his family at Restigouche. He returned to P.E.I. in 1762 and lived there until 1772 … he went next to Miscou with a group of P.E.I. Acadiens."

Excerpt from Page 266

"… Landry Alexis Landry is one of the most important Acadian patriarchs in the history of Caraquet. … We find Alexis Landry and his family at Bonaventure in 1765. He went next for refuge to Isle of Miscou near the brook named for him 'Landry Brook'. In 1769 he obtained written permission from George Walker of Nepisiguit to regain possession of his old establishment at Sainte-Anne-du-Bocage. Charles Robin notes in his journal, that the Landry family and Arsenault family moved from Miscou to Caraquet in spring of that year. All during this period … Alexis Landry traded with English merchants who were established there. ... Moore and Finlay, Amesbury and Bard, Charles Robin, William Smith and George Walker. He bought of them different provisions, that he in return paid with fish and game (pelts). As well as being a merchant, Alexis Landry was a carpenter and directed the construction of ships at Caraquet. In 1775, he built the brig 'George', for the company of John Shoolbred of London, he delivered to Bonaventure August 18, 1776 to his agent, William Smith."

Excerpt from Page 429

"… Sivret This family is originally from the Isle of Jersey. The ancestor, Georges Sivret, had been captain for the (cie) Robin before opening up a trade for his own."

From Caraquet Man Retraced 645-Mile by Gale Robichaud

"… As the American War of Independence ended and new Loyalist settlers came to what is now New Brunswick, the francophones of Caraquet banded together to secure title to their property and avoid a second expulsion. Frances Gionet was chosen to travel to Halifax to ensure the British colonial administration recognized their settlement on the Acadian Peninsula. He made the entire journey on foot, and the document he secured for 14,000 acres of land for 33 local families became later known as the Great Caraquet Land Grant."

From Acadian World Congress Published by The Telegraph Journal

The Petitpas Family contributed by Fidele Theriault

"… Father Pierre Maillard, the famous missionary of the Micmacs in Acadia, was a close friend of the Petitpas Junior family which had settled on Ile-Royale (Cape Breton). In 1760, he asked the governor of Nova Scotia to allow him to retain the services of the brothers Louis and Joseph Petitpas in Halifax. They were the sons of Claude Petitpas Junior and his second wife, Francoise Lavergne. They spoke Micmac fluently and often acted as interpreters. Father Maillard also recommended to the governor two other of their brothers, Jacques and Jean Petitpas, as expert dyke builders."

The Cormier Family contributed by Fidele Theriault

"… The ancestor of the Memramcook Cormiers, Pierre, married to Anne Gaudet, was captured by the British in 1755 and imprisoned in Fort Cumberland (Beausejour). Tradition has it that Pierre escaped disguised as a woman. On the eve of the day when he and other Acadians were slated to be deported to Georgia, his sister brought food as well as female garments."

The Robichaud Family contributed by Fidele Theriault

"… In 1755, aged 86, Prudent was put aboard the ship Pembroke and was deported to North Carolina. During the trip, the Acadians took over the ship and beached it in the Saint John harbour. From there they fled to Quebec. Prudent Robichaud died during that trek. … Prudent's third son, Louis, was also a very prosperous merchant in Acadia. He was deported along with his family to the Massachusetts colony. During his exile, he was granted by the abbe Maillard, vicar general in Acadia, the privilege of baptizing new borns, receiving marriage consent and presiding at Acadian funerals in the absence of missionaries. He and his family found refuge in Quebec around 1775. Louis' son Otho settled at Neguac and was one of the Acadian leaders in New Brunswick from the end of the 18th century until his death in 1824. He is the ancestor of the Robichauds of that community."

The Arsenault Family contributed by Fidele Theriault

"… The Arsenaults of the Gaspe are descended from two sons of the pioneer in Acadia, Pierre and Charles Arsenault. They are to be found chiefly in Bonaventure and Carleton. A son of Pierre, Joseph Arsenault, was militia captain at Restigouche, in 1759. Because of his military position, he must have taken an active part in the last naval battle between France and Britain for the possession of Canada, in 1760, known as the Battle of Restigouche."

The Boudreau Family contributed by Fidele Theriault

"… Joseph Boudreau, son of Anselme and of Marguerite Gaudet of Beaubassin, found refuge at Restigouche on Chaleur Bay where he married Jeanne Hache in 1761. He later lived during a few years on Miscou before settling in Caraquet. He died at Nipisiquit in 1797."

The Allain Family contributed by Fidele Theriault

"… Louis Allain married Anne Leger in 1748, at Beaubassin and settled at Petitcodiac, New Brunswick. Fearing deportation, he sought refuge with his family at Miramichi which was under the protection of commander Charles de Boishebert. He later settled at Bouctouche, leaving his son Michel, who was married to Josette Savoie, at Neguac."

The Bourdages Family

"… Raymond Bourdages, born in 1728, also came from France to Acadia as a surgeon-major with the French troops stationed in what is now southeastern New Brunswick. He married Esther LeBlanc, from Grand Pre, at the Saint John river settlement after the deportation. They settled at Bonaventure, in the Gaspe, where Raymond Bourdages built stores and two mills. His property was destroyed by American privateers during the War of Independance."

The Goguen Family

"… The founder of the Goguen family in Acadia was Joseph Gueguen, born in Brittany in 1741. He came to Acadia in 1753 as a protégé of the abbe Manach. In 1755 he managed to reach Quebec where he studied at the seminary until 1758. Having returned to Acadia, he was imprisoned at Fort Cumberland where he married Anne Arsenault. Around 1767, Joseph became the leader of the first settlers of Cocagne in New Brunswick. His influence was felt from Richibucto Village to Barachois because he had a superior education and spoke English, Micmac and Latin."

The Landry Family

"… It is generally believed that the first Landry families came to Acadia around 1645 and that they came from the area of La Chaussee, France. Several Landry families left Port-Royal to settle at Beausejour, including the family of Alexis Landry, born at Grand Pre in 1728. After the fall of Beausejour, where Alexis Landry had taken part in the defense of the fort against the British troops, he was freed to rejoin his family on the Cocagne river. In 1769 Alexis Landry settled at Caraquet where, for forty years, he led an active and successful economic, social and religious life. This is so evident that history has graciously dubbed him 'The Patriarch'."

The Bastarache Family

"… The ancestor of the Bastarache family in Acadia was Jean Bastarache. He was called 'Le Basque' because he came from the Basque country. His grandsons, Pierre and Michel, were deported to South Carolina during the fall of 1755. Along with a dozen other Acadians, they returned to Acadia by way of Quebec - a six months' journey - to find their families. Michel Bastarache later settled in Tracadie where many descendants bear the surname Basque."

The Savoie Family contributed by Fidele Theriault

"… The Acadian Savoie family is descended from only one pioneer, Francois Savoie who was born in France in 1621 … Only one of his sons, Germain, who had settled up river from Port-Royal and who had married Marie Breau, left descendants in Acadia. … The Savoies of New Brunswick are descended from Germain who fathered six sons, including Jean dit Iane, Jean-Baptiste dit Baptist and Joseph who all settled in Shipoudie (Hopewell) during the first half of the 18th century. Because of this move, the Savoies are among the oldest families in New Brunswick. According to a story noted by Placide Gaudet and published in the form of a letter to Le Moniteur Acadien, the Savoies were among 85 Acadians arrested by the British in August, 1755, and imprisoned at Fort Lawrence in Beaubassin. During the night of October 1 - 2, the Acadians escaped through a hole which they had dug under the walls of the fort. They joined their families in Petitcodiac where they placed themselves under the protection of commander Charles Deschamps sieur de Boishebert. During the summer of 1756 these families traveled to the Miramichi where the number of Acadian refugees was estimated at 3,500. The large families of these Acadian pioneers, belonging to Jean, Jean-Baptiste and Joseph Savoie quickly spread throughout the Miramichi and in the neighboring areas. At the beginning of 1800 their children or grandchildren were settled at Oak Point, in Tabusintac, Tracadie, Pokemouche, Lameque, Shippagan, Bouctouche, Eel River and even at Carleton in the Gaspe."

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