1500  - 1529 A.D.

The Spaniards dominate the interior and southern portions on 
North America.

The first recorded encounter with the Europeans 
shows their primary interest is the slave trade.

  INDIAN HISTORY 1530 - 1564






It is estimated that 2,200 distinct American-Indian languages was spoken in the Americas before significant European contact.  About 200-300 for North America and 350 for Mexico and Middle America.  Language is one method of understanding the genealogy of the First Nation Peoples.


The population of the world at about 400 million was distributed as follows:   
    China, Japan, and Korea        130 million
    Europe and Russia                 100 million
    India subcontinent                    70 million   
    Southeast Asia and Indonesia   40 million
    Central and western Asia          25 million
    Africa                                       20 million
    The Americas                           15 million

Some believe Tadoussac, Quebec, where the Saguenay and St. Lawrence Rivers meet is continuously used by the natives as a trading center.

The Arikaria people arrived in the Black Hills of Dakota followed shortly by the Cheyenne, Crow, Kiowa and the Pawnee peoples.

Some time prior to 1500 A.D. a Roman terra cotta a few centimeters tall that was made about 200 A.D. was lost in the Toluca Valley of Mexico.

Archaeology has suggested European steel trade goods had found their way to the Seneca People south of Lake Ontario.  It is noteworthy that steel had replaced stone among these people by the 1590's.  Brass was also in high demand for arrow heads.

Joao Fernandes from the Azores and Bristol sailing for Portugal reaching Greenland and named it Terra del Lavrador (Land of the Farmer).  He was lost in 1501 on his second voyage to Terra do Lavrador.

Archbishop Valkendorf of Drontheim wanted to send an expedition to Greenland to search for the Greenland colony.

Two caravels of Vicente Yanez Pinzon sank in the Lucayan Islands of the Bahamas.

Gaspar Corte Real (1450-1500), a slave trader departed Lisbon on his first voyage to Terra del Lavrador (land of the farmers) (Greenland).  He landed Tierra Verde (Newfoundland) to confirm the land for Portugal as assigned in 1494 under the Treaty of Tordesillas.  As a result of frozen sea he went on to enter Davis Strait, explore Hamilton Inlet.   Real abducted 57 Beothuk or L'nu'k ( Micmac) Indians as slaves.  The Portuguese found the Beothuk People appealing, their manners and gestures most gentile, they laughed considerably and manifested greatest of pleasure.  Others suggest the Beothuk were interested in trade and tended to harass the land based fishing operations of Europeans.  

The Athapaskin speaking peoples of the Northwestern Canada began arriving the Four Corners Region to become the Navajo and Apache.  At this time most pueblos are deserted.

The Dorset culture is gone from their last locations in Northern Quebec and Labrador being replaced by the Eskimo with their kayak and dogs.  European diseases are ravaging the native populations.  The Natives generally use clubs and it appears their gradual replacement by the tomahawk is a result of European trade.  Tomahawk is an Algonquian name meaning war hatchet.  By 1502 reports are circulating that the English had also brought Beothuk slaves to England for display.  The Algonquian of the St. Lawrence to the Plains near Red River is producing maple sugar for trade.  The climate changed for the worse and the agricultural foot holds in the Dakotas and Red River is limited as it is impossible for corn to ripen before the first frost.

The People's language has been classified as primitive however Iroquoian as an example is at this time grammatically exacting and formal as Greek.  The Dakota Sioux used 19,000 words, Shakespeare used 24,000 words.  The Nahuatl used 27,000 words.

The Neutral People of New Dundee, Ontario are living in 400-foot long houses and build elaborate sweat lodges.
The climate in the Andes of South America again cooled causing crop failure and driving the Incas down.  Science calls this the Little Ice Age (1500-1800).

About this time the Spaniards introduced the burro to America.

The Mi'Kmaq, an Algonkian speaking people, occupied Acadia (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island).  They belong to a loosely-organized Wabanaki Confederacy of the Abenaki, Penobscot and Passamaquoddy and Maliseet. 

The Algonquins drove the Iroquois from the shores of St. Lawrence River.

Between 1500 to 1530 the Huron occupied the Montreal area.

The Navajo (Dene or Athabascan speaking people) of Alberta arrived Chaco Valley, New Mexico and Arizona about this time.  This is almost 300 years after the Great House 'Chaco' New Mexico was abandoned by the Anasazi.  

Joao de Barros arriving on the first expedition to South America writes to King Manuel of Portugal:  The Lands represented on the Mappa Mundi whom Pero daz Bisagudo has."  Joao goes on to say the only difference between the old maps is whether Brasil was inhabited.  This clearly indicates the Chinese had previously visited this region in 1421.

A large inflow to the Imperial Valley in southern California from the gulf created a lake 26 times of the present Salton Sea. 

A 15 year old Incan girl known as 'Liullaillaco Maiden' was left to die on Mount Liullaillaco, Argentina.  This was the result of a religious sacrifice called capacocha.  Hair analysis suggest she was fed aristocratic food for a year before the sacrifice.  Maize and liama meat was consumed, whereas the locals common food was potatoes.  She was drugged before dying of exposure.  She had a severe chronic lung infection caused by the genus of bacterium that causes tuberculosis.  

Peruvian mummies were tested for the hormone cortisol which suggests high stress levels at death and also showed they had experienced multiple stressul episodes.

January 26: Spanish explorer Vicente Yanez Pinzon reached the northeastern coast of Brazil

April 22: Pedro Alvares Cabral (c1460-c1526), Portuguese explorer, discovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal. He anchored for 10 days in a bay he called "Porto Seguro" and continued on to India.

October: Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captured Christopher Columbus and returned him in shackles to Spain. Columbus, during his third sojourn to the new world, engaged in a dispute with the ambassador plenipotentiary to Santo Domingo, Hispaniola (later shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Columbus was later released and forgiven by the Queen.


Gaspar Corte Real (1450-1500) departed Lisbon on his second voyage to Tierra Verde (Newfoundland).   He captured a number of (Nasquapee? or Beothuk?) Peoples for slaves.  Some believe that Gaspar Corte Real (1450-1500), a Portuguese, from Lisbon is the first person to introduce the concept of slavery into Canada.  The only native People know to engage in slavery prior to European contact are some of the peoples from the Northwest Coast.  Where or how they acquired this practice is unknown.  He sent his brother Miguel Corte Real (Alberto Cantino) back to Portugal with the 57 slaves to Lisbon, for display.  They may appear to be savages but are gentle and have a strong sense of shame.  The Beothuk is described as follows; they are taller than average, their eyes are greenish, they are well formed, bold, their manners and gestures are most gentle, they laugh considerably and manifest the greatest pleasure.  They are better made in the arms, legs and shoulders than Europeans.  The women have small breasts and most beautiful bodies and rather pleasant faces, their color is more white than otherwise, but men are considerably darker.  Keep this gentile picture in your mind as we uncover the brutality of the Europeans genocide against these lesser children of God.   They were considered to be possibly the best slaves discovered up to this time but they all shortly died in captivity. The merchants therefore all turned their attention to fish and timber.  Gasper Corte Real is believed lost at sea with more than fifty Native slaves.  Miguel Real also lost a ship.

A caravel of Cristobal Guerra is lost off the northern coast of South America.

The first African Negro slaves arrived American to work in place of the American-Indian slaves because they were believed stronger and easier to control and were believed to tolerate heat better.  The black African and natives of America mixed rather freely and many of the southern American tribes have little resemblance to northern American tribes.  This is noteworthy, as it highlights the European Christian belief system vs. the African and American belief systems.  Who's is the more civilized culture? 

Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) sailing for Portugal explored Brazil's coastline down to Rio de Plata at Buenos Aires, he sailed on to 50 degrees south to Argentina's southernmost tip but some do not believe him.  He was exploring the eastern coast of South America from 1501 to 1604 so its possible.  He died of malaria.

Iberian explorers returned to Portugal with several Beothuk slaves.  Both England and France captured Beothuk slaves in the early 1500's.

The Spaniards Rodrigo de Bastidas, Juan de la Cosa (1460-1510) and Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) sailed the Panama-Colombia coast and landed Columbia, South America and discovered the mouth of the Magdalena River.  They then returned to Hispaniola (Quisqueya).    Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) of Spain established a settlement in Hispaniola (Quisqueya) and became a planter and a pig farmer.  This venture failed and he fled in 1510 his creditors for Darian (Panama) then known as Tierra Firme.

October:   Gasper Corte Real's (1450-1500) expedition returned to Portugal.  Two of the three ships returned safely but Corte's ship went down with more than 50 native slaves.  Its also possible he was killed while on a slave hunting expedition.



Miguel Corte Real (1450-1502) from Portugal in search of his lost brother Gasper visited Labrador, Newfoundland, Hamilton Inlet, Belle Isle Strait, to search for his brother but some say more on a slave expedition.   Miguel like his brother is also lost presumably at sea. 

It is known that from this time forward the Portuguese fishermen began to exploit the immense resources of Tierra Verde (Newfoundland). 

The British are using the term "New Found Launde" when referring to Canada.

Juan de Córdoba of Seville becomes the first merchant we can identify to send an African slave to the New World. Córdoba, like other merchants, is permitted by the Spanish authorities to send only one slave. Others send two or three

The Santa Ana is lost off the north coast of South America.

One of the earliest maps of Canada is drawn by an unknown Portuguese mapmaker showing the lands southwest of Greenland.  It is believed that Beothuck slaves are brought to England this year.

It is believed the Spanish savages began slaying the People on the East Coast this year.  The People would later say that the very first thing that Europeans do is to murder People.  The Spanish, French and English kill each other if no one else is available.

May:   Fernado Columbus d-1506 son Christopher Columbus set sail for America with four ships.  In Honduras and Panama he had a mutiny, desertions and conflicts with the natives.  He lost the ship Gallela as a result of being attacked by the People.  He had to abandon the ship Nizcaina as his 150 man expedition was brought low by fevers and rancid food.  None of his four ships made it back to Spain.  He obtain a ship in Jamaica and return a broken man.

Portuguese traders took peanuts from Brazil and Peru to Africa.

September 18: Christopher Columbus landed at Costa Rica during his 4th and last voyage.  Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica.



Vasco Aries Corte Real sailed with two ships for Labrador in search of his two brothers Gaspar and Miguel without luck.

The Gallega is lost off the coast of Panama.

The Vizcana is lost off the coast of Panama.

The ship Magdalena is lost in the Gulf of Mexico.

Cape Race, Newfoundland is recorded in the English Daybooks of King's Payments dated September 20, 1503.

October 30:  Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against Indians but few listened.



St. John's Newfoundland is established as a fishing village by the Norman fishermen.  Not sure about this but some were fishing the Grand Banks off Newfoundland.  England had a very poor showing in most of the 1600 century in the Grand Banks off Newfoundland.  As an example only 4 English vessels are seen off Newfoundland by 1673.  Other nations can count 100's.

The French fishermen are using Ferryland Harbor, Newfoundland as a base for their summer fishery.  The Portuguese called this harbor Forilon and preceded the French here.

Hernan Cortes, Valle de Oaxaca, Marques del (1485-1547) arrived in America.

Capitana and Santiago de Palos ships are lost off Jamaica.

A caravel of the Guerra brothers is lost off the coast, east of Panama.

A caravel of the Guerra brothers is lost near Panama in the Gulf of Darien.

Columbus lost his ships Capitana and San Juan in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica, marooning him for one year.

The term 'Red Indian' is being used by Europeans and is believed to be based on accounts that the Beothuks painted themselves red and the fact they believed they found the East Indies.


Spanish silver 'pieces of eight' began circulating in the Americas and remained legal tender in the USA until 1857.  The Peoples of America used and traded copper, gold, silver, iron and obsidian.  Copper articles for example have been found in burial mounds in Alabama, Wisconsin, Ohio and other near by states.  Obsidian from the Rocky Mountains for example is found in burial mounds of the Ohio.  Alabama is named of a tribal subdivision of the Creek Confederacy.

The pinnace of Juan de la Cosa is lost off the coast of Jamaica.

Five ships of Jean de la Cosa is lost near Panama in the Gulf of Darien.

Alonso de Ojedo a Spanish slave trader 1499-1505 is killed by poisoned arrow in South America.


Vincente Yanez Pinzon; Juan Diaz de Solis Spanish slave raids on the Yucatan Peninsula, Honduras.  

Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) a Spaniard with the help of American-Indian allies sighted the Pacific Ocean at Panama.  Some suggest this was 1513.  Nunez was too poor to outfit himself as a proper conquistador had stowed away in a barrel on a ship bound for Panama.  He romanced the daughter of Careta, cacique of Coiba, made friends with Panciaco, son of Comogre, cicique of Comogra, and with these local chief allies to became a leader of men and fought his way to the Pacific.

Jean Denys from Honfleur, Normandy with his pilot Gamard stopped Newfound and named a cove after himself, Le Havre de Jean Denys (Jean Deny's Harbour) now called Renews on the east coast of the Avalon Peninsula.

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), an Italian, died this year some say still believing he had sailed to India.  This seems highly unlikely.

Sugar cane was introduced from China to the West Indies this year.


Amerigo Vespucci (1494-1512) an Italian is believed to have named America after himself.  He is believed to be the first one to realize America was not part of Asia, as believed by most folks.

America is named this year by an obscure clergyman, Martin Waldseemuller, based on the discover Amerigo Vespucci voyage to America in 1497, who laid the foundation that the new discoveries are a continent and not islands on the way to India, in a book first published in 1507.  It is believed the first maps of North America are based on old Chinese maps and Vancouver Island was called Colonia, Chinois.  The Waldseemuller Gores map records both north and south America as well as the pacific ocean.


Thomas Aubert of Dieppe, a slave trader, returned to France with native slaves for official presentation and public display. He sailed up the Saint Lawrence River.  A map of the new world is published in Rome showing Terra Nova (Newfoundland) and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.  Others suggest he is fishing the Grand Banks off Newfoundland and spread the news this year to other Bretons.  The British didn't have much interest in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland as only 4 British ships are working off shore Newfoundland.

Most believe Sebastian Cabot (1476-1557), who fraudulently claimed to have sail with his father in 1497 now claimed to have sailed into Hudson Bay in 1508 or 1509 and that he first believed he had seen the Pacific ocean.  Cabot reported he had taken two vessels to the north of 'Terra de Labrador' and had sailed through a strait to the point where it opened to the southward.  He claimed he would have reached Asia if his crew had not mutinied.  There is no supporting evidence, except for his own claims, that this journey ever took place.  One account in 1529 states that Sebastian Cabot was not qualified for leadership of a maritime adventure.  Sebastian's false claims cast serious doubt on the claims attributed to his father John Cabot.

The first black slaves to America are taken to the island of Hispaniola (Quisqueya) this year and the black slave trade would not end until 1888 in Brazil.  It is estimated that ten million black slaves are shipped to America during this period.

Sebastian Ocampo with two ships spent 8 months circumnavigating Cuba and charting it coasts.  He returned to Spain in 1514.



Chocolate was sent from Mexico to Spain for the first time.

Columbus's son, Diego Cólon, becomes governor of the new Spanish empire in the Carribean. He soon complains that Native American slaves do not work hard enough.

A French ship landed six Beothuck slaves at Rouen being the color of soot with facial tattoos including their cloths, weapons and canoes.

Sebastian Ocampo completed the circumnavigation of Cuba.  Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) and Juan de Esquivel explored Jamaica and assisted in its conquest.

Juan de la Cosa (1460-1510) with Alonso de Ojeda (Hajeda) (1466-1515) and Francisco Pizarro (1476-1541) returned to Columbia where Cosa was killed in 1510, on a slave raid up the Magdalena River.

A ship of Bernaloino Talavera is lost off the coast of Cuba.


Miguel Cortreal of Portugal, ship wrecked near Dighton Rock, Massachusetts, and his crew intermarried with the Massachusetts People.  The State of Massachusetts is from a tribal name meaning large hill place.

The Chicora People occupied the coast of the Carolinas, especially the Edisto River region.  These people were wiped out by the Spanish and English slave traders. 

The French vessel Jacquette arrived Rouen, France  loaded with fish from Newfoundland.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) of Spain stowed away on a ship headed for Tierra Firme (Panama) were he led a coup and installed himself as interim governor.  

Pedro de Alvarado (1486-1541) aka Tonatiuh (called sun for his red hair) was impetuous and brutal in nature.  He arrived Hispaniola (Quisqueya)  with his three brothers.

The pinnace of Francisco Pizarro is lost off the coast of Cuba.

The ship of Rodrigo Colmenares is lost off the coast of Cuba.

A ship of Sebastian de Ocampo is lost off the coast of Cuba.

An unknown ship is lost off the south coast of Cuba.

A ship of Juan de Rojas is lost off the south coast of Cuba but the date is unknown.

A ship of Diego de Nicuesa is lost off the coast of Panama.

A ship of Fernandez de Enoisa is lost off the coast of Panama.

January 22: The start of the systematic transportation of African slaves to the New World: King Ferdinand of Spain authorizes a shipment of 50 African slaves to be sent to Santo Domingo.


Diego Velasquez arrived Cuba and was greeted with a hail of arrows.  Pedro de Alvarado (1486-1541) and his brothers were involved in this campaign.  Reports from 1494 said the People of Cuba were considered a friendly people as a result of first contact.  Word had spread of the atrocities being committed by the Spanish in the region.  Hatuey of Hispaniola (Quisqueya) had crossed the seas to speak of the Spanish atrocities.

Biminy Island of Florida is visited by Europeans.

Peter Martyr D'Anghera, De Orbe Nova wrote this year that the Balboa's expedition discovered Negroes only one day's march from Quarequa, they were fierce and carry on incessant war with the natives.  They believed these were Ethiopia, African pirates after the wreck of their ship.  The Balboa Expedition of 1501 was actually under command of Rodrigo de Bastidas and Juan de la Costa.

Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) moved on from Hispaniola (Quisqueya) to serve Diego Velazquez during the conquest of Cuba.  Diego Velazquez became the governor of Cuba.


Pope Julius II (1503-1513) decrees that American-Indians are descended from Adam and Eve.  The Spanish ignore the implications and by the law of Burgos give the right to Spanish land grantees to make slaves of Gods children. 

Newfoundland cod banks were exploited by fisherman from England, France, Portugal and Holland, who sent the dried catch back to Europe. 

Basque fishermen are still cod fishing on a regular basis off the coast of Newfoundland.  

The Native population of Mexico is believed to be thirty million people.  Disease from Europe such as mumps, measles, whooping cough, smallpox, cholera, gonorrhea and yellow fever would reduce the population of Mexico to three million by 1568.  

Bartholome de las Cases of Spain visited Cuba, and argued for Native American rights.


Bartolome de Las Casas (1484-1566) witnessed the Spanish genocidal attacks on the natives of Cuba.  As a result he spent most of his life trying to convince Europe of these evils being conducted in the Americas.

Juan Ponce de Leon, Governor Puerto Rico, landed on Florida which is the Spanish word for Easter (Pascua Florida).  His pilot was Antonio de Alaminos b-1482.   The Calusa People of south western Florida with eighty canoes attacked Juan Ponce de Leon the Spaniard forcing him to withdraw.  He would die in Cuba as a result of wounds inflicted by the Calusas.  The Calusia would acquire much gold taken from Spanish wrecks.  This tribe made human sacrifices and all enemies were killed.  It is noteworthy that Florida was first considered to be just another Island even though this expedition went as far as Daytona Beach.   Antonio de Alaminos b-1482 identified the Gulf Stream that facilitated return voyages.

The ship San Cristobal sank in the Lucayan Islands of the Bahamas.

The ship Diego Miruelo sank in the Lucayan Islands of the Bahamas.

The Bergantin of Francisco Herndnoez is lost off the coast of Panama.

September 1:  Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) interim governor of Panama led an expedition on a 25 day march to discover gold.  

 September 25:  Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) standing on a mountain ridge sighted the Spanish Lake (Pacific Ocean), he named it Mar del Sur (South Sea) suggesting America is a continent.  It is noteworthy that he was charged with treason and beheaded in 1519.  He had earlier hijacked a supply ship commanded by Martin Fernandez de Enciso that was headed for San Sebastian on the Gulf of Uraiba.  Francisco Pizarro (1476-1541) was on this expedition to the discovery of the Pacific..

September 29:  Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) reached the South Sea and claimed it for Spain including all lands surrounding it.  He therefore claimed China, Japan, India and Africa for Spain.


Francisco Montejo (1479-1553) arrived Cuba with Pedro Aris de Avila.  He was assigned one of the richest estates in Cuba.

The Santa Maria de la Merced is lost off the coast of Cuba.

The San Anton is lost off the coast of Cuba.



The Basque fishermen were active in the St. Lawrence estuary and river until 1580.  They were known to have conducted trade.  There was a major Basque settlement at Lesquemin (Les Escoumins, Quebec).  The Strait of Belle Isle is frequented by the Spanish Basque.

Bartolome de Las Casas (1474-1566), Dominican priest and the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians. He became known as the “Apostle to the Indians.”

Bartolome de la Casas in Spain stated in essence, what right does the first world have to dominate, exploit and enslave the third world, are not these people rational, feeling human beings with a soul just like the rest of us, entitled to equality of treatment.  He went on to say the City States of Central America, for example, conform in most cases to the Greek view of what an ideal City State should be, rational, and political, entitled to the respect, patience, persuasion and above all kindness from civilized people.  Other Churchmen argued that Indians are mere brutes and should not be offered salvation.  They are not listed in the biblical list of descendents of Adam therefore they are not really human and have no souls to save.  La Casas error is in assuming that Europe and his Roman Catholic Church is civilized.  The Aztec would discover that the strange popolocas (barbarians) had come to destroy their ancient civilization and religion.

Following the Magellan circumnavigation of the world (1519-1522) the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V started the quest to find the Northwest Passage to Asia.  The Spanish had maps of the east coast of America from the Portuguese and Basque expeditions into that region.  

A caravel is lost off the coast of Cuba before this date.

Havana, Cuba is establish this year on the southern coast and is relocated in 1519 to the north coast.

The Bay Island Indians in the Gulf of Mexico seized a Spanish ship.

Sugarcane is introduced to Puerto Rico to improve the sagging economy.


Diego Miruelo a Spaniard visited the Calusas in Florida.  Most Spanish feared the Florida People (Seminole) because they were on average 4 inches taller.   

The governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez, authorises slave-raiding expeditions to Central America. One group of slaves aboard a Spanish caravel rebel and kill the Spanish crew before sailing home - the first successful slave rebellion recorded in the New World.

A smallpox epidemic sweeps the Yucatan, killing Mayan people by the thousands this year.

Juan Diaz de Solis, (1470-1516) Spanish explorer, and eight others were killed by the Carrua on the coast of Argentina. They were assumed eaten by natives but the crew didn't actually witness the assumed killings.  Some accounts suggest their deaths were witnessed from the shup but other accounts suggest that had departed from view.  Pedro de Alarcón and Francisco Marquina were assumed killed.  Some contend there was a mutiny and the crew invented the story to cover their dirty deeds.



Cuba was in economic decline until African slaves were introduced to cultivate sugar and tobacco this year.

At least 50 Portuguese, Spanish and French ships are fishing the Grand Banks off Newfoundland.

February 8:  Francisco Hernandes (Fernandez) de Cordoba d-1517 of Spain visited Calusas, Florida.  His pilot was Antonio de Alaminos b-1482, who had sailed to Florida in 1513.  Then he visited the Yucatan.  He is credited with the discovery of the Yucatan peninsula but it is well known that slave traders had preceded him.  A storm blew them back to Ponce de Leons, Florida Bay.  He lost a ship in the Gulf of Mexico.

February 28:  The Cordoba expedition neared Cabo Catoche off the Yucatan and viewed a large town that they named Gran Cairo.  The Mayans sailed out to the Spanish and lured them onto land and an ambush.  The Spanish won the day and took two men captive as potential interpreters.  They then went to Campeche and observed a town with paved streets, market squares, brick and mortar houses with towers and elevated courts accessible by long stairways, along with monumental temples.

April 10:  At Champoton a battle ensued where half of the Cordoba expedition are killed and nearly all the others are wounded.  Hernandez as an example was hit by 10 arrows.  They retreated to Florida, between Cape Roman and Cape Sable and were again attacked by the natives.  Hernandez died ten days after returning to Cuba, from his war wounds.



Under Spanish law missions must precede colonization.

Lorens de Gominot of Spain is issued a license to import 4,000 African slaves into the Spanish American colonies.  Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) of Spain visits Mexico to conquer the Aztecs and other Mesoamerican Peoples.  He captured the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.

Alonzo de Pineda of Spain sailed the Gulf of Mexico and visited the mouth of the Mississippi River.

Juan de Grijalva also of Spain visited the Gulf of Mexico in 1518 and Nicaragua, reporting of the American-Indian riches.  His pilot was Antonio de Alaminos b-1482.

Francisco de Orozco of Spain is using American-Indian slaves to work his gold mines.

A ship of Juan Lopez is lost off the north coast of South America.

Baron de Lery of Portugal established a settlement on Sable Island off the southern tip of Nova Scotia.  They landed horses and cattle at Sable Island and Canso at the northern tip of Nova Scotia.  The settlements did not survive.

Jesus Nazareno and Nuestra Senora de Guardalope ships were lost off the coast of Cuba some time prior to this date.

Pedro de Alvarado (1486-1541) as captain of one of Juan de Grijalva's four ships explored the Mexico's Yucatan coastline and westward beyond the Isthmus of Tehuantepic.  He went to the Rio de Papaloapan named Rio de Alvarado where the people told him of tales of inland gold.

Cristobal de Olid in search of Grijalva visited Mexico.

African slaves were introduced to Puerto Rico to work the sugarcane fields.

May 1:  Juan de Grijalva (1490-1526) nephew of Diego Velazquez, with four ships set out for the Yucatan strait.  They landed at Cozumel Island, went on to view the ruins of Tulum, an ancient Mayan city, then went south to Bahia de Ascension that they believed to be the end of Yucatan.  They named the Island of Women, Isla Mujeres for the many women they saw at a Mayan temple.  They then sailed to Cabo Catoche and Campeche where they were attacked by the Mayan.  Further south at Champoton they had to repulse canoes filled with irate warriors.

May 31:  The Grijalva expedition reached Laguna de Terminos where they repaired their ship and took on provisions.  Their chief pilot Antoino de Alaminos still considered the peninsula an island but they went on to explore Mexico or New Spain.  They traded with the Tabascoans for gold and learned that the Pacific Ocean was only two months march away.

June 24:  The Grijalva expedition reached Veracruz and Pedro de Alvarado was sent back to Cuba with a report of their findings including gifts of gold from the Aztec monarch Moctezuma..

June 24:  Pedro de Alvarado (1486-1541) received gifts from the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma, Grijalva and formally took possession of Veracruz.

August 18: In a significant escalation of the slave trade, Charles V grants his Flemish courtier Lorenzo de Gorrevod permission to import 4000 African slaves into New Spain. From this point onwards thousands of slaves are sent to the New World each year.


South Central Alabama is claimed by Spain along with Florida.

Spanish soldiers in Mexico learned that the shipwrecked sailor Gonzalo Guerrero (1482-1532) had drifted there in 1511. Guerrero married a Maya woman Zazil Ha and raised the first mestizo children, three children  He fought against the Spanish occupation..

Pascual de Andagoya,(1495-1548) a Basque explorer, established a settlement in Panama of 400 settlers.

Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) a Spanish conquistador with 11 ships, 600 Spaniards, 200 Cubans, several Africans landed 16 or 17 horses in North America.  His pilot was Antonio de Alaminos b-1482.  It is noteworthy that the horse originated in America but became extinct after a number crossed the Bering Strait to flourished in Asia.  They followed the Yucatan coast into the Gulf of Mexico.  They defeated the natives at Tabasco and by May reached Veracruz.  The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) dazzled Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) it was bigger than Paris, Europes greatest metropolis.  The Spaniards were like hayseeds at the wide streets, ornately carved buildings, the markets with goods from all over the Americas, the botanical gardens (non existed in Europe), the immaculate streets (kept clean by 1,000 men), and the libraries.  He lost 3 caravels and 7 small ships of his fleet this season.  So reads the European account.  Archaeological evidence and Aztec accounts paint a different picture.

Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) was sent to establish friendly relations with the Aztec empire.  Greed would quickly convert noble intentions into ritualistic massacre.   

The Matanza (bloodshed) ceremony began early after the Spanish invaded Mexico and introduced the goat to the local economy.  "The slaughtering of the goats came from the Spaniards...  The People made it into a ritual.  They pray before they kill it,  they put flowers on its head.  I think they are asking for forgiveness."  Graciela Itvrbibe. 

The village of Xamunambe on the coast of South Carolina was visited by Ayllon.

Pedro de Alvarado (1486-1541) arrived Mexico two days ahead of Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) at the Island of Cozumel and looted a nearby village.  He was later forced to return the booty.  Later Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) left him in charge while he marched off to deal with Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) and Alvardo provoked the Aztecs into rebellion that ended in the killing of many Spaniards.  Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) then sent him to subject the coastal region of Oaxaca.

The caravel from Santa Maria de la Antigua is lost off the coast of Cuba.

Antonio de Alaminos b-1482 sailed to Spain with the first shipment of Aztec gold establishing a new route through the Straits of Florida and the Bahama Channel, he likely used the Gulf Stream.

Alonso Alvarez de Pineda d-1520 with four armed vessels went to challenge Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) in Mexico.  He charted the coast in detail from Florida, through, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas.  He visited Mobile Bay, named the Mississippi Rio de Espiritu Santo (River of the Holy Ghost.), and he visited Las Palmas (Rio Grande).     He failed to resolve the land dispute with Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) in Mexico and returned northeast sailing 20 miles up the Rio Panuco (Tampico) where he established a settlement.  The settlement was attacked by the Hiastecs People and Pineda was killed. 

It is estimated that the American Indian population is 25.3 million people and by 1605 only 1 million remain.

January 21:  Darien, Hispaniola (Quisqueya), death Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) was beheaded for treason by Pedro Arias de Avila (Pedrarias).

July 16:  Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) to thwart Diego Velazquez supporters among his army, scuttled all his ships except one that he sent back to Spain with Aztec gold to get royal authority for his activities.

August: Montezuma learned that Cortez (1485-1547) was marching toward Tenochtitlan with an army of 300 soldiers and 2000 non-Aztec Indians. Cortez was accompanied by Malinche, his Indian mistress and interpreter.

November 8: The Aztec and their leader, Moctezuma, welcomed Hernando Cortez and his 650 explorers to their capital at Tenochtitlan. Spanish adventurer Hernando Cortez and his force of about 300 Spanish soldiers, 18 horses and thousands of Mexico's native inhabitants who had grown resentful of Aztec rule marched unmolested into Tenochtitlán, the capital city of the Aztec empire. The Aztec ruler Montezuma, believing that Cortez could be the white-skinned deity Quetzalcoatl, whose return had been foretold for centuries, greeted the arrival of these strange visitors with courtesy--at least until it became clear that the Spaniards were all too human and bent on conquest. Cortez and his men, dazzled by the Aztec riches and horrified by the human sacrifice central to their religion, began to systematically plunder Tenochtitlán and tear down the bloody temples. Montezuma's warriors attacked the Spaniards but with the aid of Indian allies, Spanish reinforcements, superior weapons and disease, Cortez defeated an empire of approximately 25 million people by August 13, 1521.

November 18:  Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) secured Tenochtitlan by forming various alliances of People who were opposed to Aztec ruler Moctezuma.   He sent expeditions up to 300 miles to search for gold.  The found gold at Tutupec in Oaxaca, not far from the Pacific Ocean, where he built a settlement.  Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) sent men to Rio Coatzacoalcos to build a fort and establish a port.

The Aztec account written in 1528 says Pedro de Alvarado, d-1520 entered the sacred temple of Tenochtitlan and massacred the people as they prayed to their god.  The began striking off arms, legs and heads on the unarmed worshipers.  They disembowel many as they ran about dragging their entrails behind them.  They killed them from behind, as they tried to flee the temple.

Don Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) and his small army fled the City of Tenochtitlan for the coast and reinforcements.  It would take the Spanish two years of war to subdue the Aztecs.


The village of Xoxi on the coast of the Carolinas was visited by Ayllon.

A smallpox (zahuati) epidemic raged in Vera Cruz, Mexico and killed half of the Aztecs.

Diego Velazquez sent Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) to arrest Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) but he was defeated and his men joined Cortez as did the men of Francisco de Garay d-1520.  Garay charted the coast from Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas and Mexico on his way to arrest Cortez. 

Chocolate was brought from Mexico to Spain for the first time.

Six ships of Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) fleet are lost in the Gulf of Mexico.

Two ships of Alonso Alvarez de Pineda are lost in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) lost 3 ships this year.

Miguel Diaz de Aux lost a ship in the Gulf of Mexico.

A caravel of Diego de Camargo is lost in the Gulf of Mexico.

A ship of Panfilo de Narvaez is lost in the Gulf of Mexico.

Joao Alvarez Fagundes of Portugal visited Tierra Verde (Newfoundland), the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, St Pierre and Miquelon.  He was given complete property rights, jurisdiction and privileges by Portugal over these regions visited.

Fernao de Bernardino de Sahagun and Bernal Diaz del Castillo observed the Mayan had chickens (Kek or Ki), lacquer boxes, dye-stiffs, metalwork and jeweler work seemingly Chinese in origin.  The chickens were not of the European variety.  The Aztec told Spanish Fernao that a seafaring peoples landed long ago on the Gulf Coast shore (Mexico) and migrated inland into the mountains.  They called these people Cuextecas after their leader, Cuextecatl, a fierce warrior and wise man.  The Spanish would corral thousands of them like cattle for shipment to Caribbean plantations as slaves in exchange for cattle.

Fernao de Magalhaes (Magellan) sailed the Magellan Strait into the Spanish Lake (Pacific Ocean).

The Tehuelche People occupied the lower tip of South America since 10,500 B.C.  Their God who created heaven and earth was called Kooch.   The Spaniards first encountered them in 1520.  They were shot, poisoned and driven from their lands to make way for European sheep farming.  The last Tehuelche died in 1960.  Their only Legacy is the 'Cave of the Hands' to mark their passing.

An archeological dig in Calpulalpan in the State of Tlaxcala, about 100 miles east of Tlaxcaqlan (Mexico City) was found a grave of 500-550 people from a captured caravan of Spanish conquistadors on their way to Tlaxcalan.  The captured were caged, sacrificed individually over a period of 6 months, dismembered, their body parts were put on display and eaten.   This was in retaliation for the killing by Cortez's army of King Cacamatzin, of the City of Texcoco.   Of those sacrificed it included men, women and children.  Including Mulatto's (Mixed blood African-European), Mestizos (mixed blood Spanish-Indians(Metis)) and Mayan Indians.  These included soldiers, cooks, tradesmen and porters.  Forty (40) skulls were positively identified as European, 10 were European women and horses heads were displayed with European heads on the display racks.



Joao Alvarez Fagundes of Portugal established one of the first European settlements since the Vikings, most likely on Cape Breton Island (Nova Scotia).  The Portuguese were intent on settling their lands but for unknown reasons the savages destroyed the settlement and killed the settlers.

Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) entered the Straits of Magellan, South America on the second known circumnavigation of the world.  He was guided by the marine charts of the King of Portugal that were based on Chinese maps from 1421.  Magellan told his crew that "The Captain General said there was another Strait which led out (to the Pacific) saying he knew it well and had seen it in a marine chart of the King of Portugal."  Magellan's chronicler said "and he (Magellan) shows him (King of Limasarra) the marine chart...telling him how he had found the Strait to come hither.."  This is interesting that the Strait to the Pacific was known before the Columbus expedition and therefore it was known he couldn't reach India on his proposed route.

Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (d-1543) arrived Mexico with Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) on a mission to arrest Hernan Cortes (Valle de Oaxaca Marques del) (1485-1547).  Instead he joins Hernando Cortez (Cortes) (1485-1547) in his conquest of the Aztecs.  

A ship of the Quexo Cordoillo expedition sank in the Lucayan Islands of the Bahamas.

Juan Ponce de Leon was fatally wounded by Seminole Indians in Florida.  The People said it was in retaliation for capturing and selling into slavery several shiploads of the People.

Juan de Valle explored the Isthmus of Techuantepec.

Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon (1475-1526) sent Francisco Gordillo from Hispaniola to explore the coast north of Greater Florida for colonization.   Francisco Gordillo returned with 70 American slaves taken from along the Carolina coast and little else.  Ayllon freed the slaves and was determined to discover and establish a settlement himself.

Most people don't realize that more than 100 ships were lost in the first 30 years of European exploration of the New World, mostly Spanish

April 22:  French king Francois I declared war on Spain.

August 13: The Aztec at Tenochtitlan finally surrendered after two years of bitter fighting, as their numbers had greatly diminished by typhus and small pox.  The Aztec war tactics was to capture rather than kill. on the field of battle, to later sacrifice their prisoners in a religious ceremony.  The Spanish war tactics was to kill immediately by cutting off arms, legs and heads and disemboweling the Azetcs.

August 31: Spanish conqueror Cortez (1485-1547), having captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, set it on fire. Nearly 100,000 people died in the siege and some 100,000 more died afterwards of smallpox.


Pedro de Alvarado (1486-1541) explored the Oaxaca region in search of the source of the Aztec gold and find a waterway to the Pacific Ocean.  He didn't find a waterway but reported some good locations for ports.  

Pascual de Andagoya,(1495-1548) a Basque explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru.

Dominican Bartolome de Las Put sought the evangelization of the Indians of Central America.  The Americans were considered as idiot traints to be worked without wages on the properties of Saint Domingue.

Cristobal de Olid surveyed Michoacan, Pedro Alvarado (1486-1541) surveyed Oaxaca and Pedro Alvarez Chico surveyed the Guerrero coast.

September 6, Juan Sebastian de Elcano completed his circumnavigation of the world.


Jean Alfonce of France sailed to Cape Breton Island (Nova Scotia) and discovered that the Portuguese Settlement had been destroyed.

Giovanni da Verrazano (1485-1528) an Italian sailing for France (some say Spain) charted the eastern coast of America from Carolina to Newfoundland.  He encountered numerous eastern tribes.  He reported that America was not joined to Asia and that Canada was part of America.  The belief that America was not joined to Asia must have come from the natives or unknown Spanish explorers.  In 1524 he sailed along the coast of present-day New Jersey and entered Lower New York Bay. He anchored in The Narrows, the strait between Staten Island and Long Island, where he received a canoe party of Lenape.  France would claim the lands between 38 to 47 degrees as New France.

Gonzalo de Sandoval conquered the coast of Guerrero and Colima.  Francisco Cortes explored the coast of Jalisco and Nayarit to the north.

Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon (1475-1526) obtained a royal patient to explore 2,500 miles up the coast of North America and to plant a colony.  He set sail with 500 men women and children in five ships and auxiliaries.  The flag ship ran aground and had to be abandoned.  The reached the coast of North Carolina, likely Cape Fear, and established a colony that Ayllon named San Miguel.  The American People were hostile and refused to provision the colonists, likely because of the slave trader Francisco Gordillo's recent hostile actions against the People.  Only 150 of the 500 made it back to Santo Domingo.  Ayllon died of a fever October 1526 at San Miguel.  Spain, as a result of the hostile actions of Francisco Gordillo, cooled on the idea of colonizing North America.

Pedro Alvarado (1486-1541) led 450 soldiers along the Pacific coast to Honduras.

Sugar was grown in Cuba for the first time.

Pedro Arias de Avila (Pedrarias) governor of the Darien region of Panama sent Francisco Hernandez (Fernandez) de Cordoba d-1524 to take Nicaragua.  It had been previously conquered by Gil Gonzalez de Avila in 1522 put he fled to Hispaniola (Quisqueya) rather than fight Aris de Avila.  Pedro founded two cities, Leon and Granada and claimed Nicaragua for himself but was killed by his own officer on orders of Aris de Avila.

December:  Pedro de Alvarado (1486-1541) of Spain under orders of Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) began his slaughter and enslavement of thousands of Aztecs in Guatemala.  Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (d-1543) had joined Alvarado on his campaign in Guatemala.  They had 450 Spaniards and 1,000's of native allies in the exploration of Guatemala.  Over the next six months Alvardo marched through Central America including Guatemala, most of Honduras, all of El Salvador and north western Nicaragua.  He extorted gold, and enslaved the People to work the mines. 



Esteban (Estevan) Gomez of Spain is sent to verify the maps of the coast of America as provided by the Basque and Portuguese.  He charted the Grand Banks to Florida.  By the 1540's the Spanish would map the west coast of America.  The voyages of Juan de Fuca, Lorenzo Ferrer Maldonado and Bartholomew de Fonte caused cartographers to place imaginary passages and inland seas in present day Canada.  These are likely based on the natives maps of the Great Lakes and the Hudson Bay areas.  The following year Estevan Gomez raided Nova Scotia and Maine coasts for Native slaves but only 58 survived the trip back to Spain.  The following year Louis Vasquez de Ayllon also led slave raids on the Atlantic coast taking one hundred native slaves.

Giovanni da Verrazano, (1480-1527) an Italian, from Dieppe, France with his ship Dauphine sailed to Belle Isle (between Newfoundland and Labrador) as well as the eastern coast from Carolina to Newfoundland encountering many eastern Peoples.   He encountered the Abenakis People who cultivated corn.  He said they were of such crudity and evil manners, so barbarous, that despite all the signs we could make, we could never converse with them.  The Abenaki had shot volleys of arrows at Verrazano's men and then fled into the woods.  Some suggest the hostility of the Abenaki People likely suggests slave traders had preceded him.  He charted the Carolinas to Gaspe, Quebec in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

300 African slaves taken to Cuba to work in the gold mines.

The Spanish missionaries are telling the Americans that they know not the Master of the Everywhere, creator of the heavens and of the earth.  That the God of their ancestors is not the true God.  The People said they are annoyed and perturbed by such strange words.

March:   Florentine Giovanni de Verrazano (c. 1480–1527), an Italian in French service claimed to be first in Hudson River (New York Harbour).  In 1524 he reached the coast of present-day North Carolina and then explored the Atlantic coast as far north as present-day Nova Scotia.

March 20:  Giovanni de Verrazano (c. 1480/85–1527), an Italian, in the French service sighted land at 34 degrees latitude (Carolina Coast) and noted many fires on shore, concluding the land was inhabited.  We were warmly welcomed by the People and offered provisions.  They go entirely naked, except that about the loins they wear skins of small animals like martens fastened by a girdle of plaited grass, to which they tie, all round the body, the tails of other animals hanging down to their knees.  Some wear garlands similar to birds feathers.  The complexion of these poeople is black, not much different from that of the Ethiopians; Their hair is black and thivk and not very long, it is worn tied back upon their head in the form of a little tail.  In person they are a good proportion, of middle stature, a little above our own, broad across the breast, strong in arms, and well formed in legs and other parts of the body; the only exception to their good looks is that they have broad faces, but not all, however, as we saw many that had sharp ones, with large black eyes, and a fixed expression.  They are not very strong in body, but active in mind, active and swift of foot, as far as we could judge by observation.  

Verrazano (c. 1480/85–1527) sailed north and again observed a multitude of fires.  Many of the Natives came to the beach, indicating by various friendly signs that we might trust ourselves on shore; but there was an immense high surf.  A young sailor attempted shore but was dashed by the waves and appeared dead upon the beach.  They rescued the sailor, built a huge fire to warm him.  They hugged him with great affection before helping him to depart back to our ship.  

Verrazano (c. 1480/85–1527) sailed further north; we went two leagues inland but the People fled before us.  We found an old woman with two infants, a boy about age 8 and a girl age 18-20 years, all hiding.  We kidnapped the boy and tried to kidnap the girl, who was very beautiful and tall but it was impossible because of her loud shrieks and we were far from the safety of our ship.  We found these People fairer than the others.  We saw their boats made of one tree, twenty feet long and four feet broad.  We saw many vines growing naturally that could produce excellent wine.  The People carefully attended these vines.

Verrazano (c. 1480/85–1527) sailed further north at 41 degrees, 40 minutes of north latitude (New York Region), likely Narraganset Bay, Newport Rhode Island, the People are of a very fair complexion some more inclined to white and others to a tawny color.  They exceed us in size.  Their expressions are mild and pleasant.  Their women are beautiful and graceful, of fine countenances and pleasing appearance in manor and modesty.  They esteemed copper more than gold.  They were not impressed with our guns or looking-glass, only interested in how they were made.  They are very generous and giving away what ever they have.  

April 17:  Giovanni da Verrazano (1485-1528), Frenchman, reached New York Bay.  In a small boat he went to the Upper Bay and said the shores were crowded with people.  He did not land but returned to his ship due to unfavorable winds.  He sailed on to the Island of Rhodes (Rhode Island or Block Island).  There were fires burning all along the shore likely a signal for trade but he couldn't land.  At Narragansett Bay the Natives (Narragansetts) off Point Judith approached in canoes for trade.  At Newport harbor he encountered Narragansett spokesmen and recorded that these people are the most beautiful and the most civil of customs that we have found.  They are taller than we are; they are bronze of color, some tending more toward whiteness, others to tawny color; the face is clear-cut, the hair is long and black; the eyes are black and alert, and their manner is sweet and gentle, very like the manner of the ancients.  They went about naked except for deerskins covering their private parts.  Our men camped in the area, doing what sailors do.  We couldn't, however, entice the women to board our ship but the men would come aboard.  We stayed here for 15 days.  We went 5-6 leagues inland and noted they cultivated corn, apples, plumbs, filberts and many other plants.  Their boats could hold 10-12 people.  The built their houses in the round, 12 paces in circumference out of split logs and straw covered roofs, nicely put on.  Their food is pulse and is very carefully cultivated.  They are long lived.  They are very affectionate and charitable towards their relatives. 

Verrazano (c. 1480/85–1527) sailing further north, they went on to Casco Bay, Maine to trade with the Abenakis who were not as friendly as the Narragansetts.  These People were kind and gentle but so rude and barbarous we could find no way to communicate with them.  They would only trade for knives, fish hooks and sharpened steel.  When we ventured inland they shot arrows and fled as a gestures of distain and contempt and that we should leave.  It was clear that these People had encountered Europeans before, likely slave traders.

Verrazano (c. 1480/85–1527) sailed to 50 degrees north (Gulf of Saint Lawrence) and likely Newfoundland and he noted the Portuguese had already explored this region to 66 degrees north.  From this region they returned to France.

October:  Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) set out for Honduras to engage Cristobal de Olid who is now supporting Diego Velazquez again.  He would not return until 1526 and there was political turmoil when he was gone and he was stripped of authority.



Estevan Gomez a Portuguese sailing for Spain visits Nova Scotia, and Maine on a slaving expedition.  He entered New York Harbor and the Hudson River.

Basque fishermen build seasonal settlements in Newfoundland.

It is believed that a single sick Spaniard with smallpox landed in Mexico about this time eliminating more than 50%  of the Inca Empire population.  

Jofe Garcia de Loaysa and Andres de Urdaneta departed Spain to circumnavigate the globe.  Loaysa and Urdaneta were lost, but survivors of the voyage related tales of rich islands and pearls of the Moluccas, south of the Philippines.

Lucas Vasques de Ayiion (1475-1526) established San Miguel de Guandape that would later be called Jamestown.  He had 600 colonists.  Disease reduced their numbers to 150 after the first year.  They abandoned the colony leaving 80 to 100 horses behind.


Luis Vasquez de Ayllon of Spain captured over 100 slaves off the Atlantic coast of America.

Francisco Montejo (1479-1553) became governor of the Yucatan peninsula with a contract to explore, conquer and settle.

Francisco Pizarro (1476-1541) conducted an expedition 1526-1528 south of the Columbia-Ecuador border. 

November: The 1st American slave revolt occurred in South Carolina at the Spanish settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.


Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) of Spain visited the Avavares of Texas who manufactured bows for trade.  He also visited the Quitoles possibly the Karankawan.  Alvaro de Saavedra visits Mexico.  Estevanico d-1539 (Estevan or Esteban the Moor, some say black African) is also in the Gulf of Mexico.

The Inca ruler Huayna Capac son Tupa Inca died of smallpox setting off a battle for succession putting the empire in turmoil when the Spanish arrived.  

Huascar the Inca ruler reigned (1527-1532) being executed by his brother Atahuallpa (1532-1533)

John Rut departed England for America losing one ship on the way and explored St. John's, Newfoundland where he encountered 14 French and Portuguese ships then he went as far as Florida. 

The fabled Seven Cities of Gold which included Quivira and Cibola, that originated in 1150, was fortified by an African Slave from Florida Estaban Dorantes, who said he heard stories from native Americans of fabulously wealthy cities in America 

June 17:  Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) with five ships departed Spain to explore, conquer and colonize lands (Florida) north of the Gulf of Mexico.  His first stop was Hispaniola and Cuba.

July:  Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) sent four ships under command of Alvaro Saavedra Ceron to explore the Pacific Ocean to East India and China.

October:  Francisco Montejo (1479-1553) with four vessels and with Alonso de Avila as second in command established the first Spanish town of Salamanca near Tulum on the Yucatan.  They then spent the next seven years fruitlessly crisscrossing the Yucatan and fighting the fiercely rebellious population. 

November 17:  Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) was relieved of his leadership of Mexico, now called New Spain.  He was told to stop the enslavement, other than in war, of the native Peoples.  He was granted a royal contract to discover, explore and settle the Pacific coast.



Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) visited the Mariames in Matagorda Bay, Texas and they were extinct by 1890's.  He reported the coastal People provided food and shelter and otherwise treated them well.  He lived and hunted with the Indian Peoples for several years.  He visited the Mendica who became extinct shortly thereafter.  He was part of the Panfil de Narvaez expedition that was shipwrecked near Galveston Island Texas.  He is credited with the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi River.  The coastal folks of Texas collectively called them Karankawa who were 6 foot 6 inches tall and the women were seldom under 6 feet tall.

In Mexico the fortress of San Juan de Ulua was built on a coral reef in Vera Cruz.  It was estimated that 500,000 slaves died in this process.

Hernando Cortes was recalled to Spain and he brought with him haricot beans from the Americas.

While the Spaniards were in Tlaxcala, Mexico, a great plague broke out in Tenochtitlan.  It began and lasted 70 days, striking everywhere in the city, killing a vast number of people.  Sores erupted on our faces, our breasts, our bellies; we were covered with agonizing sores from head to foot.  The illness was so dreadful that no one could walk or move.  The sick were so utterly helpless that they could only lie on their beds like corpses, unable to move their limbs or even their heads, if they did move they screamed with pain.  A great many died from this plague, and many others from hunger.   They could not get up to search for food, so they starved to death.  An Aztec account as recorded by Fray Bernardino Sahagun.

July 30:  The Spanish Narvaez expedition led by Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) captured the Indian town of Aute (Florida).

April 15:  Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) anchored off the Florida gulf coast.  His landfall is uncertain, south of Tampa Bay or Saraasota Bay or Charlotte Harbour.  A party of 46 men marched north to Tampa Bay.  A second expedition found a Timucuan village where Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) treated the American People brutally.  This tendency towards brutality persisted throughout his expedition.  This ensure continuing native hostility.  Narvaez sent his ships off in search of a specific Bay and they never returned.

June:  Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) expedition marched through difficult terrain, being harassed by the Americans and finally arrived Ivitachuco near Tallahassee.  They occupied the village for 25 days.  They then marched to Acute near Saint Marks.  He sent Cabeza de Vaca to find the sea.  Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) moved his sick, starving men to the bay to build boats to reach Panuco, Mexico.

September 28: A Spanish fleet sank in Florida hurricane,  380 died.

October 31:  Panfilo de Narvaez (1470-1528) of Spain is in the Gulf of Mexico and some believe this expedition discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River.  Narvaez washed out to sea at Matagorda Bay and perished.  Of his 400 men only 4 returned to Spanish territory.

November 26:  Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) and other starving expedition survivors washed up on an Island off the Texas coast.  Could be Galveston Island, Follet's Island or San Luis Island.  Most of the eighty castaways were dead after a long cold winter.  Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) had spent a year of slavery among the Karankawan islanders before escaping to join the mainland Charrucos People for nearly three years.  He was allowed to conduct as an independent trader inland exchanging shell knives and ornaments for flint, red ocher, arrow shafts, canes and hides.  He escaped to Matagorda Bay then to Guadalupe River where he was enslaved by the Mariames People.

November: A slave called Esteban (or Estevanico) becomes the first African slave to step foot on what is now the United States of America. He was one of only four survivors of Pánfilo de Narváez's failed expedition to Florida. He and the other three took eight years to walk to the Spanish colony in Mexico. After their return in 1536, the group's leader, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, published an account of their journey through modern Texas and Mexico (1542).


Maize from America, grown in Turkey, was introduced to England as "turkey corn."

The Ribeiro Map, a Spanish map displayed a continuous coast from Labrador to Florida.

It is estimated that 50,000 people dwelled in New Mexico and Arizona before the arrival of the Spanish..

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) the Spaniard explored the interior of North America for ten years (1527-1537).  His exploration included Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Northern Mexico, and Oklahoma.  He lived the life style of the Americans for this ten year period and provided the best untainted view of the People's culture before European contact.   He started out in Florida and encountered the Apalache People who gave their name to the Appalachian Mountains.   He was stranded after their ships were lost and the crew separated.   He later discovered his fellow Spaniard including their priests had reverted to cannibalism to survive a few extra weeks.  The People were horrified at this barbaric activity.

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) concluded the American-Indians are surpassingly handsome, strong and intelligent.  He passed all their Lands in peace and discovered 'the brotherhood of man'.  He later would urge a peaceful winning of the People to King and Church.  He encountered two tribes the Yguaces and Mariames who were not like the other Peoples and had a poor regard for women and children.  Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) was only accompanied by one other person Estevenico a black Arab Christian from Morocco who acted as interpreter.  Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) knew of two other Spaniards who had deserted to the American way of life and are believed to have headed north.  Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) believed a superior American Culture existed to the north and on the Pacific Ocean.

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) adopted the Peoples life style and became a trader of American goods between the tribes traveling far into the interior.  He then became a Medicine Man and convinced the People that he was indeed sent by the Great Spirit to walk among the People.  This is the reason he used Estevenico as his interpreter to distance himself from the People and maintain this Christ like position of power.

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) listed the virtues of the People he encountered:

It is noteworthy that these values are held by the majority of the People north of Mexico.  I have not review the beliefs of the Peoples in Central and South America.   It is interesting that unmarried People enter into and disconnect relationships very casually until children are produced.  Once children are produced they become very monogamous more so than their European brothers.  The Man leaves his family and joins the woman's clan.  It is most likely that the woman chooses the man and he feels honored to join his wife's family.  He would be unsure who the father is of the first child therefore would love all the children and mothers.  This likely accounts for the strong brotherhood bonds and their great love of all the women and children.  The Europeans would consider this practice a great perversion.   

It is interesting that both men and women share the hunting, gathering and agricultural activities but women do not kill animals but do help skin and process the meat.  This is most likely because women are viewed as givers of life and nurturers of man.  Woman suckled their young anywhere from 3 years to 12 years and the men likely also suckled occasionally to entrench this strong mother earth belief.   Most First Nation People practiced birth control as well as the natural low birth rate among nursing mothers.  It is noteworthy that those few tribes who had taboo's against sexual activity during pregnancy and for years after birth are the same cultures who have a low regard for women and children especially female children who are often destroyed. 

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Caca (Vaca) (1490-1557) while in New Mexico observed the southern end of the Rocky Mountains and named them Sierra Mountains meaning Rocky Mountains in Spanish.

Numo de Guzman of Spain visited western Mexico defeating the Tarascans and made contact with the Yaquis.

July 26: Francisco Pizarro (1471-1541) was made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain. He returned to Peru in a fleet of three ships. Pizarro received a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to "discover and conquer" Peru.  He had two Metis girls Gonzalo and Francisca

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  INDIAN HISTORY 1530 - 1564